Specialist Skills

SOUND!

  • Diegetic -natural sound, dialogue, natural sound effects etc
  • Non-diegetic – voice-overs/music
  • Pan Arra = Left to right sound
  • Compression = Forwards and backwards
  • Frequency capping = Up and down
  • Time = Not static
  • Foley = production of typical sound effects added in post-production to enhance it
  • Wild track = audio that synchronises with the visual but is recorded separately

For our final piece we had to create a soundscape in which it told a story through the use of pure audio. I created and recorded the sound effects and edited them together in Adobe Audition.

Screen Shot 2015-04-28 at 10.32.05 Screen Shot 2015-04-28 at 10.32.10 Screen Shot 2015-04-28 at 10.32.14

CINEMATOGRAPHY AND LIGHTING!

My cinematography essay (will go to downloads).

Aperture

  • Changes the f number, will half or double the light
  • Going from f5/6 to f8 will half the light, whilst going the other way will double the light
  • The higher the f number the greater the depth of field
  • Wide angled lenses also have a greater depth of field

Consider

  • Check you have a good monitor and that the camera is lined up correctly
  • What is going to happen in the shot
  • Light direction
  • Lighting level

Aperture and Shutter Speed

  • Large aperture = shallow depth of field (f/2.8)
  • Medium aperture = medium depth of field (f/5.6 + f/11)
  • Small aperture = great depth of field (f/32)
  • Large sensor size = shallower depth of field
  • High shutter speed = motion is jerkier but sharp and fast (1/1000)
  • Slow shutter speed = blurred (1/15)
  • Cinematic shutter speed is always 2x the FPS (frames per second)
  • Camera shooting at 25 FPS = shutter speed of 1/50

How to get the technically ‘Best Image’

  • Native ISO
  • F4-F5.6 (aperture)
  • 1/50 shutter speed
  • exposed to give wide range of tonal values

WFM

  • 0-100
  • tells you what is under and over exposed

120 – super white 50 – mid tones 20 – super black Ideally everything within 20-80!

Compression/Colour Depth

  • 4:4:4 – RAW – RED/Alexa
  • 4:2:2 – C300
  • 4:2:0 – 7D + DSLR + C100
  • Less compressed image – the more to do in post-production
  • Higher compressed image – the less to do in post-production

Simple shot – no movement, static, tripod, focus, focal length, depth of field, exposure, colour

Complex shot – adds movement – camera & lens but no movement of the camera mount, pan (left to right), tilt (up and down), zoom, focus pull – counter zoom

Developing shot – dolly/steady cam, on a moving mount

Aesthetic – maintain composition, visual interest, genre of style

Narrative – change viewpoint in shot, reveals information, follows action

Interpretation – suggest point of view, pacing/rhythm, atmosphere and mood, reflect characters state of mind

Here is a video clip showing a variety of shots with different lighting which I filmed:

Lighting

  • Either soft or hard (harsh)
  • Diffusion = when you add a medium in front of the light to soften/spread the light
  • Reflector = bounces the light
  • The further the light travels, the dimmer it gets
  • Light always travels in straight lines

Key Light

  • Consider other factors at the location. The persons best side.
  • In a position not cause shadows
  • Best position between 30degrees and 45 degrees from either side of the subject and at an elevation of 45 degrees.

Fill Light

  • Usually a soft source
  • About half as bright as the key and on the other side of the subject to the key light

Basic Light

  • About 45 degrees behind and above the subject
  • About the same brightness as the key

Background Light

  • Not too bright
  • Should make the background interesting but not distracting from the subject
  • Keep the background out of focus

Fresnel Lights

  • Augustin Fresnel 1788-1827
  • Considered better than open lights because they give better control

Light Control

  • Adding neutral density (ND) over the light source to reduce the brightness but not colour.
  • Dimming the light will also have an effect on the colour temperature
  • Moving the light away from the subject will reduce the level as will flooding the lamp
  • Diffuser and gels will also reduce light output

Colour Temperature

  • Expressed in Kelvin (Lord Kelvin)
  • Household Bulb – 2900K
  • Studio Light – 5200k
  • Daylight – 5600k (but this can vary depending on the time of day and the weather)
  • HMI/MSR – 5600k
  • HMI are about 4 times more efficient than tungsten lamps
  • Colour correcting a tungsten lamp will reduce the light output by about 1 and a half stops (1 stop = half a light/intensity)

EDITING!

What is an editor’s job? -An editor’s job is to put together a variety of sequences in a logical and chronological way, while still being creative and ensuring it flows and works with continuity.

What makes a good edit? -Continuity, chronological order, cut appropriately and smoothly, special effects, concise

What makes a good editor? -Patient, have a good eye, works well with a team and can listen to and take direction well, knowing the software thoroughly

Editing Techniques

Cut – when one shot is cut and replaced by another straight after

Fade – where a solid colour slowly goes into/out of the picture

Wipe – when a shot pushes the next shot off screen

Dissolve – when a shot gradually goes into the next

Examples of these can be seen below:

An example of continuity editing:

This video shows continuity editing with basic cuts on a scenario of which a character trips, falling up some stairs, one passer by doesn’t help, but another stops to help.

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