Radio Joint Audience Research
RAJAR is the official body in charge of measuring radio audiences in the UK and is jointly owned with the BBC and the RadioCentre on behalf of the commercial sector. There are roughly 310 individual stations on the survey and results are published every quarter.
Figures for: Kiss FM, Capital FM, Radio 1, Heart FM, Smooth
BBC Radio 1: Population – 11,850/51,951,000
Capital FM: Population – 7,032/51,951,000
Heart FM: Population- 7,649/51,951,000
Kiss UK: Population- 4,143/51,951,000
Smooth: Population- 3,328/51,951,000
The ASA is an independent body set up by the advertising industry to monitor the rules laid down by the ofcom broadcasting code.
They regulate what the adverts include, sales promotions and marketing in Great Britain. They stop misleading, harmful or offensive advertising. They ensure all advertising meets high standards in the advertising code, which are the BCAP Advertising Codes.
The Gambling Act does not apply outside of the United Kingdom. They protect under 18s and other vulnerable people from being harmed or exploited by the adverts.These are the rules that apply to gambling advertising.
The rules that apply for this topic, the rules have to balance between freedom of speech and the prevention of advertising that could offend someone’s religion.
BCAP intend the adverts to:
- Reduce the damaging affects between different faiths
- To protect children and help adults influence their children through morals and philosophical education
- Protect those who are vulnerable
- Prevent potential harmful advertising from exploiting their audience.
The Radio Ads Commercial Clearance (RACC) is commercial radio’s advertising body. RACC is part of the RadioCentre and it’s funded by commercial radio stations that pay copy clearance fees.
BARB, Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board, is the organisation that is responsible for providing the official measurement of UK television audiences. BARB commissions specialist companies to provide the audience measurement service on its behalf.
The Ridley Scott Association is a production company for film and television, using many different directors for each and every video.
There are 5 parts of the RSA:
- RSA UK
- RSA USA
- RSA ASIA
- RSA UK ANIMATION
- RSA USA ENTERTAINMENT
‘RSA UK/USA/ASIA’ are the production companies specific to that particular region. ‘RSA ANIMATION’ shows the RSA’s animated videos which are normally either animated music videos or animated commercials. ‘RSA ENTERTAINMENT’ shows the trailers for films that have been brought out by the RSA.
The RSA UK has directed videos such as:
- Marks & Spencers-Date
- Waitrose-Love Life
The RSA USA has directed music videos such as:
- The Grey-Trailer
- T-Mobile-Home For The Holidays Suprise
- Sony Playstation-Journey
The RSA ASIA has directed videos such as:
- Katie Herzig-Free My Mind
- Canon-Flying Girls
The RSA ANIMATION has directed videos such as:
- Elder Scrolls-Skyrim
- Seven Seas-Good Inside
- Coldplay-Strawberry Swing
- Diana Vickers-The Boy Who Murdered Love
The RSA ENTERTAINMENT has directed videos such as:
- Life In A Day –Trailer
- Inside – Trailer
- ReGeneration – Trailer
A production company that works within the RSA is ‘Black Dog’ and there is ‘Black Dog UK’ and ‘Black Dog USA’.
Black Dog UK has directed:
- Example – Changed The Way You Kiss Me
- Example – Stay Awake
- Rebecca Ferguson – Nothings Real But Love
- Birdy – People Help The People
- Duran Duran – Girl Panic
Black Dog USA has directed:
- Taylor Swift – Ours
- Katy Perry – The One That Got Away
- Sean Paul – Got 2 Luv U
- The Black Eyed Peas – Just Can’t Get Enough
- Nero – Guilt
Hypodermic needle model theory
The hypodermic needle theory began in the 1920s. This theory was the first attempt to explain how mass audiences might react to mass media, it is a model that suggests that audiences passively receive the information transmitted via a media text (adverts) without any attempt on their part to process or challenge the data. This theory was developed on an age when the mass media was still fairly new, radio and cinema was less than two decades old. Governments had just discovered the power of advertising to communicate a message and produce propaganda to try and sway the general public to the way of thinking. Certain people fear that the audience will watch or read sexual or violent behavior and will then carry it out themselves.
This story shows the affects video games have on youth. This story shows that a young boy killed his own mother after she took away his playstation.
Two-step Flow Theory
This theory asserts that information from the media moves in two distinct stages. First, individuals (opinion leaders) who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages receive the information. Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content. The term ‘personal influence’ was coined to refer to the process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s ultimate reaction to that message. Opinion leaders are quite influential in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviours and are quite similar to those they influence. The two-step flow theory has improved our understanding of how the mass media influence decision making. The theory refined the ability to predict the influence of media messages on audience behaviour, and it helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes and behaviour. The two-step flow theory gave way to the multi-step flow theory of mass communication or diffusion of innovation theory.
Uses and Gratification
Uses and Gratifications Theory is an approach to understanding why people actively seek out specific media outlets and content for gratification purposes. The theory discusses how users proactively search for media that will not only meet a given need but enhance knowledge, social interactions and diversion. It assumes that members of the audience are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. The theory also holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their needs. The approach suggests that people use the media to fulfill specific gratifications. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers’ gratification.
Reception theory provides a means of understanding media texts by understanding how these texts are read by audiences. Theorists who analyze media through reception studies are concerned with the experience of cinema and television viewing for spectators, and how meaning is created through that experience. An important concept of reception theory is that the media text—the individual movie or television program—has no inherent meaning in and of itself. Instead, meaning is created in the interaction between spectator and text; in other words, meaning is created as the viewer watches and processes the film. Reception theory argues that contextual factors, more than textual ones, influence the way the spectator views the film or television program. Contextual factors include elements of the viewer’s identity as well as circumstances of exhibition, the spectator’s preconceived notions concerning the film or television program’s genre and production, and even broad social, historical, and political issues. In short, reception theory places the viewer in context, taking into account all of the various factors that might influence how she or he will read and create meaning from the text.
What does passive and active consumption mean to you?
An example of passive AND active consumption is on the TV show ‘The X Factor’ At the end of the show, Dermot O’Leary, the presenter, asks the audience/viewer to phone in to vote for their favourite act of the night, this active and passive consumption as although they ask you to do it, you’re the one who is actually picking up the phone and voting because of passive consumption.
Preferred/Dominant/Negotiated/Oppositional Reading – Key Terms
Here is an example of the key terms in context:
Analysis of Ugly in terms of encoding/decoding and state whether they are either preferred dominant or oppositional readings, as well as state reasons why I have opted for them.
The first is Tornado Girl from season 3 and the scene where Marc tells Betty how he had cheated on his (then) boyfriend, Cliff with another guy. For me personally, this scene takes on a negotiated reading because here he admits what he has done and feels so guilty about what had happened- yet he still hadn’t told Cliff what he did, until after Betty had spoken to him about it. I agree with this reading because a) he came out and confessed all, rather than remain silent and b) it took Marc a lot of guts to admit to Betty, and Cliff also, about his cheating. But for some, they would disagree with this reading because they thought that Marc should not have told Betty- mainly as they thought that it was a matter of which was of a personal nature that only Marc and Cliff should discuss together themselves and that it would not have made that much of a difference anyway. In the end, Marc lost Cliff and they broke up as a result.
The second is from season 1 and this adapts a preferred/dominant reading. Here, the scene is taken from the episode, ‘Sofia’s Choice’ when Betty confronts Sofia in her office, after she discovers how Sofia, who turns out to be the villain, humiliated Daniel on national TV and used her to endorse her own career. The dominant reading in this scene is that of Betty being outraged by what Sofia did and of who felt sorry for Daniel that in the end she quit her position at NYW and returned to Mode.
The third is from season 3 entitled ‘Rabbit Test’ and this one takes on an oppositional reading. The scene here is when Willie along with Marc changes the paternity results when they discover the mother of Baby William to be Christina, as opposed to Wilhelmina, who had long been interested in having this baby. Ever since she hired Christina to be her surrogate. This is an oppositional reading because with Willie and Marc, as the audience we are supposed to feel anger towards them as they hid the truth away from Christina, and especially with Willie getting Marc to re-type the DNA results.
An ideology is a set of ideas or beliefs that are determined by the ruling classes and very often these ideas are contested and challenged. The media is one outlet which attempts to produce these ideas and beliefs- and yet it is up to us to decide whether or not we ought to agree with and support them, or oppose and reject them. Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model seeks to highlight that there is more than one way of reading texts and that texts enlist the audience to take up a position- be it, preferred, negotiated or oppositional, based on what they see.
The ideologies in Ugly Betty say a lot about the characters, their predicaments and situations and how the likes of Betty, Daniel, Marc and Amanda go about their daily working and personal lives.
The decisions and actions they take are often made in relation to their status as individuals and via their social and cultural backgrounds.
Through its storylines, the show engages us to think, discuss and decide if those ideas and decisions do challenge how those in power at Mode convey those ideas and make decisions, and whether these are to benefit others or themselves only.
Mr Hall’s talk on Commissioning
When organising a production, you need to include in paperwork and cover all the areas of planning before starting your production otherwise you won’t get paid for your production or might not even get commissioned if all paperwork isn’t done.
How commissioning works?
The top key is to be on top of all your paperwork, it is crucial that you have a clear plan on what you have to do.
How commissioning really works?
- Pitch Idea
- Get Commissioned –> (ED Spec, Contracts, Deliverables) (Commissioning Editor, Legal, Finance, Programme Manager)
- Define Idea –> (Reporting, Legal & Compliance, Technical + Editorial Compliance) (Broadcaster guidelines, Ofcom guidelines)
- Make Programme –>(Right Clearances, Programme- as- completed- which includes everything, forms for clearance etc)
- Deliver Programme –> (Invoice)
- Maintain progress and communication with your commissioner
- Not do anything illegal
- Ensure you are trustworthy and you can prove it
- Ensure you have proof for deals you’ve made – due to copyright issues